Female Feticide.

Female Feticide (link to a word document)

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The following resources can tell us more about the issue…….

Abir, R., Glasner, M., Braslavski, D., Dicker, D., Feldberg, D., & Fisch, B. (2003). Severe ovarian dysgenesis and enlarged dysplastic kidneys in two siblings with normal karyotypes. Fertility and Sterility, 79(1), 209-211. doi:DOI: 10.1016/S0015-0282(02)04560-0

Abrejo, F. G., Shaikh, B. T., & Rizvi, N. (2009). ‘And they kill me, only because I am a girl’…a review of sex-selective abortions in South Asia. European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care, 14(1), 10-16. doi:10.1080/13625180802518231
The low social status of women and the preference for sons determine a high rate of sex-selective abortion or, more specifically, female feticide, in South Asian countries. Although each of them, irrespective of its abortion policy, strictly condemns sex-selective abortion, data suggest high rates of such procedures in India, Nepal, China and Bangladesh. This paper reviews the current situation of sex-selective abortion, the laws related to it and the factors contributing to its occurrence within these countries. Based on this review, it is concluded that sex selective abortion is a public health issue as it contributes to high maternal mortality. Abortion policies of South Asian countries vary greatly and this influences the frequency of reporting of cases. Several socio-economic factors are responsible for sex-selective abortion including gender discriminating cultural practices, irrational national population policies and unethical use of technology. Wide social change promoting women’s status in society should be instituted whereby women are offered more opportunities for better health, education and economic participation through gender sensitive policies and programmes. A self-regulation of the practices in the medical profession and among communities must be achieved through behavioural change campaigns. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]; Copyright of European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care is the property of Taylor & Francis Ltd and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder’s express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts)

Alward, P. (2002). Thomson, the right to life, and partial birth abortion or two MULES* for sister Sarah. Journal of Medical Ethics, 28(2), 99. Retrieved from

http://proquest.umi.com.jerome.stjohns.edu:81/pqdweb?did=116789158&Fmt=7&clientId=9216&RQT=309&VName=PQD
Alward argues that Jarvis Thomson’s famous attempt to reconcile the fetus’s putative right to life with robust abortion rights is not tenable. Thomson’s view implies that any late term abortion that involves feticide is impermissible. In this paper, I argue that Thomson’s famous attempt to reconcile the fetus’s putative right to life with robust abortion rights is not tenable. Given her view, whether or not an abortion violates the fetus’s right to life depends on the abortion procedure utilised. And I argue that Thomson’s view implies that any late term abortion that involves feticide is impermissible. In particular, this would rule out the partial birth abortion technique which has been so controversial of late.

Arockiam, E. (2007). Self-concept of married women in South India: A grounded theory approach. ProQuest Information & Learning). Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 67 (12), 7397-7397. Retrieved from

http://search.ebscohost.com.jerome.stjohns.edu:81/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=2007-99012-105&site=ehost-live
The history of women in India would be very bleak if we looked through the eyes of women because of the dehumanizing practices such as sati, purdah, dowry, child marriages, female feticide and infanticide that were widely practiced for centuries. But the influence exerted during the 19th and 20th centuries by the persistent efforts of some enlightened reformers and of the British rulers has resulted in promulgating certain laws designed to correct these problems. In this twenty-first century, despite considerable growth in some areas, women do not enjoy equality with men in India. In this context, though the topic of women’s self-concept is relevant and quite unexplored, available literature from the psychological point of view is little. Keeping in mind the abstract nature of the topic, the lack of literature on the topic, and the culture of the participants, a qualitative study was done to understand the self-concept of married women in South India. Using in-depth semi-structured interviews and the Grounded theory approach of analysis through open, axiel and selective codings propounded by Strauss and Corbin (1990), data were collected in English from 13 married women in Tamil Nadu and Kerala to understand how married women viewed themselves. The semi-structured in-depth interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed for manual coding. Two unique features of this study were to (1) use the technique of Twilight Imagery to elicit Metaphors the participants had on a subconscious level and (2) get the help of an auditor to check the open coding for validity. From the descriptions, prescriptions and expectations of the participants, concepts, categories and core categories of their self-concept were abstracted. Along with family, academic and career, spiritual, social and physical core categories, the influence of culture and various psychological processes that affect the participants’ self-concept were explored. As a result, this comprehensive study has attempted to develop a comprehensive, integrative description of a theory of self-concept of married and employed women in South India. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved)

Berer, M., & Grimes, S. (2007). Legal, safe, and rare? The Lancet, 370(9595), 1309. Retrieved from http://proquest.umi.com.jerome.stjohns.edu:81/pqdweb?did=1369383531&Fmt=7&clientId=9216&RQT=309&VName=PQD
India’s first woman president, Pratibha Patil, is arguing for such an approach, announcing in her inaugural speech: We must banish malnutrition, social evils, infant mortality and female feticide.

Bhat, M. (2006). Sex ratio in India. The Lancet, 367(9524), 1725-1726. doi:DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(06)68759-X

Bhatt, R. V. (1998). Domestic violence and substance abuse. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 63(Supplement 1), S25-S31. doi:DOI: 10.1016/S0020-7292(98)00181-7

Brown, B., & Althaus, F. (2001). Court undercuts female feticide. International Family Planning Perspectives, 27(3), 111. Retrieved from

http://proquest.umi.com.jerome.stjohns.edu:81/pqdweb?did=79672631&Fmt=7&clientId=9216&RQT=309&VName=PQD

English, V., Mussell, R., Sheather, J., & Sommerville, A. (2005). Family planning and coerced sterilisation. Journal of Medical Ethics, 31(8), 495. Retrieved from

http://proquest.umi.com.jerome.stjohns.edu:81/pqdweb?did=885837571&Fmt=7&clientId=9216&RQT=309&VName=PQD
In May 2005, the Indian Medical president called for a one-child policy as operated in China to curb population growth. India already suffers, however, from an imbalanced gender ratio as a result of female feticide and infanticide, and many think that a one-child policy would exacerbate the problem. Some poor women are forced to undergo sex-selective abortions followed by sterilization.

English, V., Mussell, R., Sheather, J., & Sommerville, A. (2005). Family planning and coerced sterilisation. Journal of Medical Ethics, 31(8), 495. Retrieved from

http://proquest.umi.com.jerome.stjohns.edu:81/pqdweb?did=885837571&Fmt=7&clientId=9216&RQT=309&VName=PQD
In May 2005, the Indian Medical president called for a one-child policy as operated in China to curb population growth. India already suffers, however, from an imbalanced gender ratio as a result of female feticide and infanticide, and many think that a one-child policy would exacerbate the problem. Some poor women are forced to undergo sex-selective abortions followed by sterilization.

Fletcher, J. C., & Evans, M. I. (1998). Ethical issues in reproductive genetics.

Seminars in Perinatology, 22(3), 189-197. doi:DOI: 10.1016/S0146-0005(98)80034-7

Garg, S., & Nath, A. (2008). Female feticide in India: Issues and concerns. Journal of Postgraduate Medicine, 54(4), 276-279. Retrieved from

http://search.ebscohost.com.jerome.stjohns.edu:81/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=35136499&site=ehost-live
The preference for a son continues to be a prevalent norm in the traditional Indian household. This is evident from the declining sex ratio which has dropped to alarming levels, especially in the northern states according to Census 2001 reports. The proliferation and abuse of advanced technologies coupled with social factors contributing to the low status of women such as dowry, concerns with family name and looking up to the son as a breadwinner has made the evil practice of female feticide to become common in the middle and higher socioeconomic households, especially in the northern states. Despite the existence of the Prenatal Diagnostic Techniques Act, there is a dire need to strengthen this law since the number of convictions is despairingly low as compared to the burden posed by this crime. Moreover, it is necessary to gear efforts against the cultural, economic and religious roots of this social malady by woman empowerment and intensive Information, Education and Communication campaigns. The medical colleges and professional bodies have a vital role to play by sensitizing medical students who are the doctors of tomorrow. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]; Copyright of Journal of Postgraduate Medicine is the property of Medknow Publications & Media Pvt. Ltd. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder’s express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts)

Garg, S., & Nath, A. (2008). Female feticide in India: Issues and concerns. Journal of Postgraduate Medicine, 54(4), 276. Retrieved from

http://proquest.umi.com.jerome.stjohns.edu:81/pqdweb?did=1590098711&Fmt=7&clientId=9216&RQT=309&VName=PQD
The preference for a son continues to be a prevalent norm in the traditional Indian household. This is evident from the declining sex ratio which has dropped to alarming levels, especially in the northern states according to Census 2001 reports. The proliferation and abuse of advanced technologies coupled with social factors contributing to the low status of women such as dowry, concerns with family name and looking up to the son as a breadwinner has made the evil practice of female feticide to become common in the middle and higher socioeconomic households, especially in the northern states. Despite the existence of the Prenatal Diagnostic Techniques Act, there is a dire need to strengthen this law since the number of convictions is despairingly low as compared to the burden posed by this crime. Moreover, it is necessary to gear efforts against the cultural, economic and religious roots of this social malady by woman empowerment and intensive Information, Education and Communication campaigns. The medical colleges and professional bodies have a vital role to play by sensitizing medical students who are the doctors of tomorrow. The preference for a son continues to be a prevalent norm in the traditional Indian household. This is evident from the declining sex ratio which has dropped to alarming levels, especially in the northern states according to Census 2001 reports. The proliferation and abuse of advanced technologies coupled with social factors contributing to the low status of women such as dowry, concerns with family name and looking up to the son as a breadwinner has made the evil practice of female feticide to become common in the middle and higher socioeconomic households, especially in the northern states. Despite the existence of the Prenatal Diagnostic Techniques Act, there is a dire need to strengthen this law since the number of convictions is despairingly low as compared to the burden posed by this crime. Moreover, it is necessary to gear efforts against the cultural, economic and religious roots of this social malady by woman empowerment and intensive Information, Education and Communication campaigns. The medical colleges and professional bodies have a vital role to play by sensitizing medical students who are the doctors of tomorrow.

Ghosh, R. (2009). Ethical conflict among doctors in India: a cause of high female foeticide. Acta Paediatrica, 98(2), 403-404. doi:10.1111/j.1651-2227.2008.01104.x
The article comments on ethical conflicts among doctors on the cause of high female feticide in India. According to the author, sex selective abortions involves a two-step process: the determination of the sex by one of the three ways, amniocentesis, chronic villus sampling and by ultrasound, and therapeutic abortion. He stresses that strict measures should be taken to change the existing Prenatal Diagnosis Techniques Act with regular and frequent vigilance of the ultrasound clinics.

Gill, G. K. (1998). Female Feticide as a Contemporary Cultural Practice in the Punjab. Dialectical Anthropology, 23(2), 203. Retrieved from

http://search.ebscohost.com.jerome.stjohns.edu:81/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=11357537&site=ehost-live
Investigates female infanticide as a traditional cultural practice in Punjab, India. Focus on the gender-based division of housework among children; Importance of considering other cultural practices that may have contributed to the practice of female infanticide; Involvement of Sikh religion; Impetus behind the renaissance of the practice of feticide.

Graham, R. H., Robson, S. C., & Rankin, J. M. (2008). Understanding feticide: An analytic review. Social Science & Medicine, 66(2), 289-300. doi:DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2007.08.014

Grewal, J. (2008). Theorizing Activism, Activizing Theory: Feminist Academics in Indian Punjabi Society. NWSA Journal, 20(1), 161. Retrieved from

http://proquest.umi.com.jerome.stjohns.edu:81/pqdweb?did=1752482271&Fmt=7&clientId=9216&RQT=309&VName=PQD
The focus of this paper is on the activism of the faculty of the Centre for Women’s Studies and Development (CWSD), Panjab University, Chandigarh, India. Several feminists of India challenge the academy-centered interpretation of feminism. They believe that attention solely to theorizing feminism reinforces the privilege still existing in the wealthy, sanitized, and disassociated model present among many university professionals of the West. Academic feminists in India with whom I have been acquainted know themselves as “organic intellectuals.” The changing face of feminism in India includes the activism of academics challenging the patriarchal structures at the grassroots level as well as among the personnel of the institutions perpetuating such structures. This paper demonstrates the efficacy of fusing activism with theory by the faculty of the Centre in their efforts to work with the local government in Panjab villages, and to attempt to record the incidence of female feticide and advocate for its end by changing law. The paper will also illustrate the role of the Centre’s attempts to build coalitions even as it influences changes among law enforcement officers via gender sensitivity training of law enforcement agencies of three provincial governments. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]

Imam, Z. (1994). India bans female feticide. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 309(6952), 428. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com.jerome.stjohns.edu:81/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=4930179&site=ehost-live
Reports the passage of the Prenatal Diagnostic Techniques Bill in both Parliamentary Houses in India. Problem of selective termination of female fetuses; Reasons female feticide is practiced; Doubts in the enforcement of the new law.

Kishwar, M. (1993). Abortion of female fetuses: Is legislation the answer? Reproductive Health Matters, 1(2), 113-115. doi:DOI: 10.1016/0968-8080(93)90016-M

Kumar, S. (1994). Legislation on prenatal sex-determination in India. The Lancet, 344(8919), 399. Retrieved from

http://proquest.umi.com.jerome.stjohns.edu:81/pqdweb?did=1698466&Fmt=7&clientId=9216&RQT=309&VName=PQD
India has taken an important step towards reducing female feticide by passing the Prenatal Diagnostic Techniques Bill. This bill seeks to ban prenatal sex-determination tests and to prevent the misuse of such techniques for female feticide.

Kumar, S. (1998). Perinatal mortality a human-rights issue in India. The Lancet, 351(9112), 1340. Retrieved from

http://proquest.umi.com.jerome.stjohns.edu:81/pqdweb?did=29392949&Fmt=7&clientId=9216&RQT=309&VName=PQD
India’s National Human Rights Commission has formed a core group to address infant and maternal mortality, female feticide and infanticide, and poor health care among women and children. A National Nutritional Anaemia Prophylaxis Programme was begun in 1970 but was never implemented properly; proper implementation now could change the situation in India drastically.

Lewi, L., Jani, J., & Deprest, J. (2005). Invasive Antenatal Interventions in Complicated Multiple Pregnancies. Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America, 32(1), 105-126. doi:DOI: 10.1016/j.ogc.2004.10.008

Mahalingam, R. (2007). Culture, ecology, and beliefs about gender in son preference caste groups. Evolution and Human Behavior, 28(5), 319-329. doi:DOI: 10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2007.01.004

Mandal, S. (2001). Modernization and women’s status in India: A gender in development perspective on dowry deaths, sex ratios, and sex-selective abortions. ProQuest Information & Learning). Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, 62 (2), 797-797. Retrieved from

http://search.ebscohost.com.jerome.stjohns.edu:81/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=2001-95015-074&site=ehost-live
According to modernization theory, as societies develop from feudal-agrarian to urbanized-industrial, there is an accompanying change in the values of people. Tradition gives way to modernity and oppressive traditional practices are given up because traditional ways of thinking and behaving give way to modern, rational thought based more on logic and evidence than on customs and kinship. Modernization brings with it increased education of all classes and groups, thus empowering groups that, till now, had comparatively less power. Certainly, women are supposed to become more empowered as they receive more education and get drawn into the paid labor force. Critics of modernization theory, on the other hand, say that modernization perpetuates, and sometimes aggravates, traditional forms of oppression. One traditional Indian practice is that of giving dowry to the bridegroom at a daughter’s marriage. This practice, essentially, sterns from the subordinate status of women in relation to men. The custom of dowry leads to daughters being viewed as unproductive burdens. This in turn leads to the practice of female infanticide, or its disguised form, that of selective neglect of girl children, or both. My hypothesis is: Low status of women dowry marriages daughters being viewed as burdens on their parents female infanticide/feticide low sex ratios. I analyze census, vital and other government statistics, and dowry death data and find that despite gains in key modernization indicators like urbanization and literacy, dowry and the related practice of female infanticide have not disappeared. In fact, the falling female to male sex ratios’ indicate that female infanticide is increasing, as are dowry murders, and where sex ratios are low dowry deaths are high. Moreover, modern technology, like amniocentesis, is now being used selectively to kill female children even before their birth. I conduct both longitudinal and cross sectional analysis of the data and find that in regions that historically devalued women, the situation has worsened, while many regions and classes, that earlier accorded better status to women, now report falling sex ratios and substantial numbers of dowry murders. Depending on the kinship structure, I also find significant differences between regions and groups. (1) In keeping with the Indian demographic convention, I use the female-to-male sex ratio (IMR), which is the number of females for every 1000 males. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved)

McNay, M., & Fleming, J. E. (1999). “forthee….towhom% nosoundisdissonantwhichtellsoflife”% —coleridge. Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, 25(1), 3-56. doi:DOI: 10.1016/S0301-5629(98)00129-X

Mentzer, W. C., & Glader, B. E. (2005). Erythrocyte Disorders in Infancy. In H. William Taeusch, M.D., Roberta A. Ballard, M.D., Christine A. Gleason & M.D. (Eds.), Avery’s Diseases of the Newborn (Eighth Edition) (pp. 1180-1214). Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders. doi:DOI: 10.1016/B978-072169347-7.50079-2

Renteln, A. D. (1992). Sex selection and reproductive freedom. Women’s Studies International Forum, 15(3), 405-426. doi:DOI: 10.1016/0277-5395(92)90008-J

Round the World: India–Proposed Law Against Pre-Natal Sex Test.(1989). The Lancet, (8641), 774. Retrieved from

http://proquest.umi.com.jerome.stjohns.edu:81/pqdweb?did=8740048&Fmt=7&clientId=9216&RQT=309&VName=PQD
Legislation in India to curb the use of amniocentesis for pre-natal sex determination is profiled. Currently the practice of female selective feticide is widespread.

Sarna, K. (2003). Female foeticide on the rise in India. Nursing Journal of India, 94(2), 29. Retrieved from http://proquest.umi.com.jerome.stjohns.edu:81/pqdweb?did=298398321&Fmt=7&clientId=9216&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Sarna, K. (2005). Decreasing Sex Ratio and Pregnant Women’s Attitude Towards Female Foeticide. Nursing Journal of India, 96(4), 83. Retrieved from

http://proquest.umi.com.jerome.stjohns.edu:81/pqdweb?did=841856681&Fmt=7&clientId=9216&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Sasson, V. R., & Law, J. M. (2009). Imagining the fetus: the unborn in myth, religion, and culture. Oxford: Oxford Univ Pr. Retrieved from

http://search.ebscohost.com.jerome.stjohns.edu:81/login.aspx?direct=true&db=reh&AN=ATLA0001697381&site=ehost-live

Shalev, J., Meizner, I., Rabinerson, D., Mashiach, R., Hod, M., Bar-Chava, I., Peleg, D., & Ben-Rafael, Z. (1999). Improving pregnancy outcome in twin gestations with one malformed fetus by postponing selective feticide in the third trimester. Fertility and Sterility, 72(2), 257-260. doi:DOI: 10.1016/S0015-0282(99)00237-X

Sharma, B. R., Gupta, N., & Relhan, N. (2007). Misuse of prenatal diagnostic technology for sex-selected abortions and its consequences in India. Public Health, 121(11), 854-860. doi:DOI: 10.1016/j.puhe.2007.03.004

Sheth, S. S. (2006). Missing female births in India. The Lancet, 367(9506), 185. Retrieved from http://proquest.umi.com.jerome.stjohns.edu:81/pqdweb?did=977791481&Fmt=7&clientId=9216&RQT=309&VName=PQD
Concentration on respecting women’s sexual and reproductive rights as well as their human rights can be the only answer to this problem. In 1986, the Federation of Obstetric and Gynaecological Societies of India passed a resolution against prenatal sex determination and medical termination of pregnancy because of the sex of the fetus. All members of the federation are asked to desist, dissociate, and discourage female feticide as it is a “crime against humanity”.16

Sheth, S. S. (2006). Missing female births in India. The Lancet, 367(9506), 185. Retrieved from

http://proquest.umi.com.jerome.stjohns.edu:81/pqdweb?did=977791481&Fmt=7&clientId=9216&RQT=309&VName=PQD
Concentration on respecting women’s sexual and reproductive rights as well as their human rights can be the only answer to this problem. In 1986, the Federation of Obstetric and Gynaecological Societies of India passed a resolution against prenatal sex determination and medical termination of pregnancy because of the sex of the fetus. All members of the federation are asked to desist, dissociate, and discourage female feticide as it is a “crime against humanity”.16

Stewart, K. A. (2008). Anthropological Perspectives in Bio-Ethics. In Kris Heggenhougen (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Public Health (pp. 184-193). Oxford: Academic Press. doi:DOI: 10.1016/B978-012373960-5.00140-4

Sumner, M. M. (2009). The unknown genocide: How one country’s culture is destroying the girl child. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 15(2), 65-68. doi:10.1111/j.1440-172X.2009.01727.x
Female feticide and infanticide is occurring at an alarming rate in India as a result of preference for sons. The cultural reasons for sex-selective abortions and the government’s current strategies against this problem are identified. However, the problem’s scope might be too great for the Indian government. Humanitarian efforts are needed to save the girl child. Nurses are a key group of people that need to be made aware of this issue as they are advocates for vulnerable populations. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]; Copyright of International Journal of Nursing Practice is the property of Blackwell Publishing Limited and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder’s express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts)

Vandenberghe, K., De Wolf, F., Fryns, J. P., Eggermont, E., & Van Den Berghe, H. (1984). Antenatal ultrasound diagnosis of fetal malformations: possibilities, limitations and dilemmas. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 18(5-6), 279-297. doi:DOI: 10.1016/0028-2243(84)90050-9

Yazicioglu, H. F., Turgut, S., Madazli, R., Aygun, M., Cebi, Z., & Sonmez, S. (2004). An unusual case of heterotopic twin pregnancy managed successfully with selective feticide. Ultrasound Review of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 4(2), 626. Retrieved from

http://proquest.umi.com.jerome.stjohns.edu:81/pqdweb?did=658767891&Fmt=7&clientId=9216&RQT=309&VName=PQD

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